Bavarian Generals of the Seven Years’ War

Electorate of Bavaria 1756–1763

Bavarian General of the Seven Years’ War, Electorate of Bavaria 1756–1763.

The Auxiliarkorps, which deployed to Silesia in August 1757, and returned early 1759, was commanded by Major-Generals von Seyssel d’Aix and Baron Pechmann, who in 1758 succeeded the former in command, and received Major-General Graf Rambaldi as his deputy. The Bavarian contingent of the Reichsarmee, which campaigned from 1758 to 1762, was commanded in succession by Major-General, later Lieutenant-General Ludwig Graf von Holnstein, 1760 Major-General, later Lieutenant-General Siegmund Freiherr von Hegnenberg, 1761 Major-General Graf Rambaldi, and 1762 Major-General von La Rosée (SGBH, 31).

Bavarian General Officers’ Ranks of the Seven Years’ War

  1. Generalfeldmarschall (G.F.M.)
  2. Generalfeldzeugmeister (F.Z.M.), General der Kavallerie (G.d.K.)
  3. Generralleutnant (G.L.), Generalfeldmarschall-Leutnant (G.F.M.L.)
  4. Generalwachtmeister (G.W.), Generalfeldwachtmeister (G.F.W.), Generalmajor (G.M.)

Generals of the Bavarian Army, 8 October 1750

  • Generalfeldmarschall Joseph Ignaz Graf von Törring-Jettenbach († 17 August 1763)
  • Generalfeldmarschall Max Kajetan Graf von Törring-Seefeld
  • Generalfeldmarschall Ludwig Joseph Comte d’Albert, Fürst von Berghen und Grimberghen
  • Generalfeldzeugmeister Christoph Adam Ossalko Graf von Minucci
  • Generalfeldzeugmeister Heinrich Bambès de Florimond
  • General der Kavallerie Joseph Johann Baptist Graf von Piosasque de Ron
  • Generalleutnant der Infanterie Heinrich Theodor Topor Graf von Morawitzky auf Trenczin und Rudnitz
  • Generalleutnant der Infanterie Joseph Karl Graf von Preysing (28 March 1762 G.Z.F.M.)
  • Generalleutnant der Infanterie Johann Leonhard de Friderico
  • Generalleutnant der Infanterie Heinrich Adolph von Wittgenstein
  • Generalleutnant der Kavallerie Joseph Fürst von Hohenzollern (9 August 1762 G.d.K.)
  • Generalleutnant der Kavallerie Max Joseph Graf Fugger von Zinneberg
  • Generalleutnant der Kavallerie Joseph Wilhelm Ignaz Freiherr von Stain (1 May 1762 G.d.K.)
  • Generalleutnant der Kavallerie Siegmund Friedrich Freiherr von Preysing
  • Generalleutnant der Kavallerie Egidius von Wachsenstein
  • Generalleutnant der Kavallerie Johann Philipp Freiherr Zündt von Kentzingen
  • G.M. der Infanterie Johann Klaudius Graf von Seyssel d’Aix (29.08.1758 G.F.M.L, † 23.01.1761)
  • Generalmajor der Infanterie Georg Siegmund Freiherr von Hegnenberg genannt Dux
  • Generalmajor der Infanterie Matthias von Wolter
  • Generalmajor der Infanterie Thomas von Quardi (Guardi)
  • Generalmajor der Kavallerie Joseph Hieronymus Graf von Spreti
  • Generalmajor der Kavallerie Karl Rudolph von Le Roy († May 1757)
  • Generalmajor der Kavallerie Ludwig von Rys (Ryß)
  • Generalmajor der Kavallerie Max Emanuel Franz Joseph Freiherr von Sandizell
  • Generalmajor der Kavallerie Joseph Heinrich Freiherr von Pechmann
  • Generalmajor der Kavallerie Friedrich Adolph Freiherr von Meinders
  • Generalmajor der Kavallerie Johann Kaspar Graf Basselet von La Rosée
  • Generalmajor der Kavallerie Adelardo Graf von Alleardi

Promotions on 12 October 1759

  • Generalfeldzeugmeister Heinrich Theodor Topor Graf von Morawitzky auf Trenczin und Rudnitz
  • Generalfeldmarschall-Leutnant Joseph Heinrich Freiherr von Pechmann
  • Generalfeldmarschall-Leutnant Max Emanuel Franz Joseph Freiherr von Sandizell
  • Generalfeldmarschall-Leutnant Friedrich Adolph Freiherr von Meinders († 26 Nov. 1760)
  • Generalfeldmarschall-Leutnant Thomas von Quardi (Kommandant von Donauwörth)
  • G.F.M.L. Kaspar von La Rosée (Hofkriegsratsdirektor, 01.08.1763 Inspector of Infantry)
  • Generalwachtmeister Johann Jakob Winther von Burgheim (Commandant of Amberg)
  • Generalwachtmeister Johann Anton von Weinberger
  • Generalwachtmeister Joseph Ferdinand Maria Graf von Salern
  • Generalwachtmeister Franz Richard Gattermann (Commandant of Ingolstadt)
  • Generalwachtmeister Joseph von Poth († 2 August 1763)
  • Generalwachtmeister Franz Joseph Servatius von La Rosée
  • Generalwachtmeister Kaspar Graf von Livizzani (Hofkriegsrat, 01.08.1763 Inspector of Cavalry)
  • Generalwachtmeister Peter Ignaz Freiherr von Hegnenberg-Dux (Commandant of Braunau)
  • Generalwachtmeister Joseph Anton Graf Lodron (promoted 9 February 1761)


The dress of general officers appears, perhaps with the exception of the (blue) colour and the cut of the cloth dictated by fashion, to have been left up to personal taste of the individual, at least as far as the accessories of the outer garments were concerned (SGBH, 36). Generals who were also owners (Inhaber) of a regiment, probably wore the uniform of their regiment with silver or gold embroidery according to their rank.

On 5 July 1759, the generals of the Imperial Army were instructed by the Emperor, to wear the white uniform with red facings of the Austrian general officers (SGBH, 1083). Apparently, this regulation was meant to minimize the danger of uniform confusion, but it is not known if Bavarian generals of the Reichsarmee complied with it.

The decree of 16 March 1774 finally introduced a uniform dress-regulation for Bavarian generals: blue coat with silver embroidery differing by rank, based on approved patterns, black velveteen facings replacing the formerly blue facings; the measurements of length and width, as well as the design of the embroidery did not permit any variation. Because the previous uniform had been considered too valuable to be worn as a campaign uniform, generals received a coat with plain silver embroidery and straw-coloured lining, white buttons and black velveteen facings with standardized embroidery, besides straw-coloured vests and breeches of fabric (SGBH, 36 – 37).

Campaign Uniform of 1774

  • blue coat with straw-coloured lining and white metal buttons
  • black velveteen facings with silver emroidery “nach Muster” (patterned)
  • black stock with silver embroidery
  • straw-coloured vest (from 11 January 1775 with white edging “nach Muster” as a distinction for Statthalter (military governors), city and fortress commandants)
  • silver and ligh blue sash (from 3 January 1775 for duty and ceremonial occasions)
  • straw-coloured breeches
  • black riding boots
  • black tricorne hat with white feather edging and black cockade
  • red saddle blankets and pistol covers with silver edging

If (a general who was also) an owner of a regiment already had an embroidered regimental uniform, he was permitted to wear it up, but only in combination with the regulation vest and breeches (SGBH, 37).

Bavarian Army of the Seven Years’ War