Ochre (ocher), a naturally occurring mixture of earthy iron hydroxide [iron(III) oxide hydrate] with clay and lime, sometimes lighter, sometimes darker brownish. Ochre is found in the Harz Mountains, in Bavaria, in Siegen, in England, France and Italy. It is used as a pigment by cleaning it, washing off the sand contained in it, drying it, milling and sifting it. Common varieties are called yellow earth. Careful heating makes their colour more fiery, and a distinction is then made according to the nuance: Schöngelb, Kassel Golden Yellow, Chinese Yellow, Yellow Ochre, Light Ochre, Satin Ochre, Amberg Earth and Dark Ochre. When heated strongly, Ochre turns red iron oxide.
Burnt ochre is also known as Berlin Red, Prussian Red, Nuremberg Red, House Red, Brown Red. Red ochre is found near Saalfeld, in the Harz Mountains, in Bohemia; the best variety is Sienna. Ochre is used as water, oil and lime paint; it is very durable and quite opaque. The powdered pigment is used to colour chamois leather. Artificial ochre is obtained by mixing milk of lime with vitriol of iron or by precipitating mixed solutions of alum or vitriol of zinc and vitriol of iron with soda. All these precipitates are well washed out and exposed to the air until they have turned yellow and glowed occasionally (Mars Yellow, Mars Orange, Mars Brown); they are used especially in finer arts painting.
Single Pigment Colours
A small overview of ochre (PY) single pigment colours suitable for miniatures, models, and dioramas.
- Yellow Ochre (PY 42, Eisen(III)-oxidhydrat), Lascaux Studio 961
- Yellow Ochre (PY 42), Lukascryl 4631
- Yellow Ochre (PY 42, Eisen(III)-oxidhydrat), PRIMAcryl 13.675
- Iron Oxid Yellow (PY 42, Eisen(III)-oxidhydrat), PRIMAcryl 13.676
- Yellow Ochre (PY 42, Eisen(III)-oxidhydrat), Lukas Studio Ölfarbe 231
- Yellow Ochre Attican (PY 42, Eisen(III)-oxidhydrate), MUSSINI Ölfarbe 35656
- Translucent Ochre (PY 42, Eisen(III)-oxidhydrat), Norma Künstler-Ölfarbe 11.604
Mixed Pigment Colours
- Spearstaff Brown, Citadel 15
- Ochre, Kreul 75.507
- Yellow Ochre, Plaka 18
- Sand (Yellow Ochre RAL 1024), Revell 361.16
- Ochre, matt (Braunbeige RAL 1011), Revell 361.88
Source: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, 6. Auflage 1905–1909